An Investigation of Retrieval-induced Facilitation

An Investigation of Retrieval-induced Facilitation

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One long-standing finding in the memory literature is that taking a memory test enhances retention of the tested material. This phenomenon is known as the testing effect. Recent evidence suggests that testing can enhance retention of even the nontested material that is related to the tested material---a finding named retrieval-induced facilitation (RIFA, Chan, McDermott, a Roediger, 2006). Previous research, however, has shown that testing can also impair later recall of the nontested-related material---a finding called retrieval-induced forgetting (RIFO). The current dissertation aimed to address three questions of interest regarding RIFA. First, what are the conditions under which retrieval induces facilitation or forgetting of the nontested-related materials? Second, what are the effects of testing on the long-term recall of the nontested-related materials? Third, how does time pressure during the initial test affect the likelihood of RIFA? Experiment I examined the influence of varying degrees of integration invoked during encoding and different levels of retention interval on the likelihood of RIFA. RIFO was observed in the low-integration, short delay condition. However, RIFA was observed in the high-integration, long delay condition. These findings helped establish integration and delay as critical factors in determining whether initial testing enhances or hampers later recall of the nontested-related materials. Experiment 2 sought to examine whether RIFA can persist in the long-term. In this experiment, subjects took the final test after a 20 min, 24 hr, or 7 day delay The results showed that RIFA occurred even after a 7 day delay, suggesting that the benefits of RIFA are long-lasting. In Experiment 3, four response deadlines were implemented during the initial test: 7 s, 16 s, 25 s, or 34 s. Surprisingly, although the size of the testing effect increased with longer response deadlines, the likelihood of RIFA did not vary with response deadline. These results suggest that different mechanisms may contribute to RIFA and the testing effect. The results of these experiments helped specify the conditions under which testing improves subsequent recall of the nontested materials. These findings have important implications for the implementation of teaching and studying strategies.Cofer, C. N., Bruce, D. R., aamp; Reicher, G. M. (1966). Clustering in free recall as a function of certain methodological variations. Journal of Experimental ... Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., aamp; Engle, R. W. ( 2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and usera#39;s guide.

Title:An Investigation of Retrieval-induced Facilitation
Publisher:ProQuest - 2007

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